Syntax

Syntax

Contents

12.1. Precoordinate and Postcoordinate Syntax.
12.2. Precoordinate Syntax for Displayed Indexes.
12.2.1. Subject Heading Syntax: Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH).
12.2.1.1. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).
12.2.1.2. Principles for Subject Heading Systems.
12.2.2. String Syntax.
12.2.2.1. Rotated Term Syntax.
12.2.2.2. Faceted Syntax (PRECIS, CIFT).
12.2.2.2.1. Converting LCSH to Faceted Syntax.
12.2.2.3. Ad Hoc String Syntax (NEPHIS)
12.2.3. Relational Syntax.
12.2.3.1. Syntagmatic Relationships.
12.2.4. Classification Syntax.
12.2.4.1. Chain Syntax.
12.2.5. Natural Language Syntax.
12.2.5.1. KWIC Syntax.
12.2.5.2. KWOC Syntax.
12.2.5.3. KWAC Syntax.
12.2.6. Permuted Syntax.
12.2.7. Ad Hoc Syntax.
12.2.7.1. Combining Ad Hoc Syntax with Systematic Syntax.
12.2.8. Syntactic Cross References.
12.3. Postcoordinate Syntax for Non-Displayed Indexes.
12.3.1. Exact Match (Boolean) Syntax.
12.3.2. Best Match (Weighted Term) Syntax.
12.4. Our Examples.
12.4.1. A Book Index.
12.4.2. An Indexing and Abstracting Service.
12.4.3. A Full-Text Encyclopedia/Digital Library.
• 1 definition of syntax; syntax in index headings compared to search statements

• 2 role of syntax in indexing

• 3 impact of syntax on precision

• 4 example of impact of syntax on precision

• 5 syntax as essential attribute of indexes

• 6 syntax in index headings compared to search statements

12.1. Precoordinate and Postcoordinate Syntax.

• 7 purpose of index headings and search statements

• 8 precoordinate index headings

• 9 postcoordinate search statements

• 10 differences between displayed indexes and non-displayed indexes

• 11 views of Svenonius (Elaine) on precoordination versus postcoordination

• 12 criteria for indexing languages

12.2. Precoordinate Syntax for Displayed Indexes.

• 13

• 14 views of Craven (Timothy) on purpose of precoordinate syntax

• 15 criteria for precoordinate indexing languages

12.2.1. Subject Heading Syntax: Library of Congress subject headings.

• 16 development of subject headings in 19th century

• 17 subject headings in the United States

• 18 Library of Congress subject headings

• 19 types of subject headings in Library of Congress subject headings

• 20 syntax of Library of Congress subject headings

• 21 history of syntax in Library of Congress subject headings

• 22 main headings in Library of Congress subject headings

• 23 combination of entities and actions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 24

• 25 subdivision practice in Library of Congress subject headings

• 26 form subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 27

• 28

• 29

• 30 geographic subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 31

• 32

• 33

• 34 chronological subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 35

• 36 topical subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 37 subdivision by place versus topic in Library of Congress subject headings

• 38 syndetic structure in Library of Congress subject headings ; definition of syndetic structure

• 39

• 40 equivalent term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

• 41 narrower term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

• 42

• 43 broader term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

• 44 related term cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

• 45 general cross references in Library of Congress subject headings

• 46

• 47

• 48

• 49 absence of cross references in library catalogs

• 50 syndetic structure as vocabulary management

• 51 modernization of Library of Congress subject headings

• 52 conference on future of subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings :
recommendations for improvement

• 53 arrangement of subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 54

• 55 national authority file for Library of Congress subject headings

• 56

• 57 chronological subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 58 categorization and display of subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 59 geographic subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 60 subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 61 display of Library of Congress subject headings

• 62

• 63

• 64

• 65 views of Drabenstott and Vizine-Goetz on display of Library of Congress subject headings : decision trees

• 66 exact-match searches using Library of Congress subject headings

• 67

• 68

• 69

• 70 alphabetical browsing using Library of Congress subject headings

• 71

• 72

• 73

• 74

• 75 keyword searches using Library of Congress subject headings

• 76

• 77

• 78

• 79

• 80

• 81 search decision trees for Library of Congress subject headings

• 82 views of American Library Association on display of Library of Congress subject headings

• 83

• 84 comprehensibility of Library of Congress subject headings

• 85

• 86

• 87

• 88

• 89

• 90 confusion between form versus topical subdivisions in Library of Congress subject headings

• 91

• 92

• 93

• 94

• 95

• 96 professional and research literature on Library of Congress subject headings

• 97 Sear’s list of subject headings

12.2.1.1. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).

• 98

• 99

• 100

• 101 browsing versus searching using Medical subject headings

12.2.1.2. Principles for Subject Heading Systems.

• 102

• 103 principles regarding construction of subject heading systems

Construction Principles

• 104 principles regarding uniform headings in subject heading systems

1. Uniform Heading Principle (Terminology Control and Predictability of Representation): “To facilitate synonym control and to collocate subjects in the display of bibliographic records, each concept or named entity that is indexed by a subject heading language should be represented by one authorized heading” (Beall, p. 292).

• 105 principles regarding synonymy in subject heading systems

2. Synonymy Principle: “To collocate all material on a given subject and to increase the recall power of a subject heading language, synonymy should be controlled in the subject heading language” (Beall, p. 292).

• 106 principles regarding homonymy in subject heading systems

3. Homonymy Principle: “To prevent the retrieval of irrelevant materials and to increase the precision power of a subject heading language, homonymy should be controlled in the subject heading language” (Beall, p. 292).

• 107 principles regarding semantics in subject heading systems

4. Semantic Principle: “To express the semantic (paradigmatic) structure of a subject heading language, subject headings should be linked by equivalence, hierarchical and coordinate relationships” (Beall, p. 294). (Less agreement on this principle — Cochrane, p. 186).

• 108 principles regarding syntax in subject heading systems

5. Syntax Principle: “To express complex and compound subjects, the syntax of a subject heading language should link the compound parts of a subject heading by syntagmatic relationships rather than semantic (paradigmatic) ones” (Beall, p. 295). (This principle had the least agreement — Cochrane, p. 186).

• 109 principles regarding consistency in subject heading systems

6. Consistency Principle: “To achieve and maintain consistency, each new subject heading admitted into a subject heading language should be similar in form and structure to comparable headings already in the language” (Beall, p. 293).

• 110 principles regarding naming in subject heading systems

7. Naming Principle: “To facilitate integrated retrieval, names of persons, places, families, corporate bodies and works when used in a subject heading language of a given catalogue, bibliography or index should be established according to the rules used for author and title entries in that catalog, bibliography or index” (Beall, p. 293-294).

• 111 principles regarding literary warrant in subject heading systems

8. Literary Warrant Principle (A Posteriori Principle): “To reflect the subject content of documents, the vocabulary of a subject heading language is [i.e. should be] developed dynamically, based on literary warrant, and integrated systematically with existing vocabulary” (Beall, p. 297).

• 112 principles regarding user needs in subject heading systems

9. User Principle: “To meet users’ needs, the vocabulary of subject headings in a subject heading language should be chosen to reflect the current usage of the target audience for the subject heading language, whatever that might be, for example the general public or users of a specific type of library” (Beall, p. 296).

• 113 principles regarding application of subject heading systems

Application Principles

• 114 principles regarding subject indexing policy for subject heading systems

10. Subject Indexing Policy Principle: “To meet user needs and give consistent treatment to documents, indexing policies giving guidance for subject analysis and representation should be developed” (Cochrane, p. 187 — not included in Beall).

• 115 principles regarding specific and coextensive subject headings in subject heading systems

11. Specific Heading Principle (Specificity Principle): “To increase the precision power of a subject heading language, a subject heading [or a set of subject headings] should be coextensive with the subject content to which it applies” (Beall, p. 297, Cochrane, p. 187).

• 116 future of subject headings

• 117

12.2.2. String Syntax.

• 118 definition of string syntax

• 119

• 120 principles regarding specific and coextensive index headings in string syntax

• 121

12.2.2.1. Rotated Term Syntax.

• 122 definition of rotated term syntax

• 123 examples of rotated term syntax

• 124 dates (time) in rotated term syntax

• 125 locators in rotated term syntax

• 126 rotated term syntax in America: history and life

• 127 string syntax compared to subject heading syntax; coextensive index headings in string syntax

• 128 coextensive index headings and eliminability in string syntax

• 129 clarity of rotated string syntax

Figure 12.1. Index entries from America: history and life. (Reprinted by permission of ABC-CLIO, (c) 1996)

12.2.2.2. Faceted Syntax (PRECIS, CIFT).

• 130 definition of faceted syntax

• 131 examples of faceted syntax

• 132 faceted syntax compared to rotated term syntax

• 133 PRECIS as example of faceted syntax

• 134 role and facet indicators in faceted syntax

• 135 role definers in faceted syntax

• 136 display of faceted index headings

• 137

• 138

• 139 faceted syntax in specialized domains

• 140 examples of faceted index headings from MLA international bibliography

• 141

• 142

• 143

• 144 role definers in faceted syntax

• 145 faceted syntax compared to rotated term syntax

Figure 12.2. Index entries from the MLA international bibliography. (Reprinted by permission of the Modern Language Association of America, (c) 1998)

• 146

• 147 clarity of index headings

• 148 collocation of index headings

• 149 collocation in rotated term syntax

• 150

• 151

• 152

• 153

• 154

• 155 collocation in faceted syntax

• 156 predictability of index headings

12.2.2.2.1. Converting LCSH to Faceted Syntax.

• 157 views of Chan (Lois Mai) on faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

• 158 facets of Bliss classification applied to Library of Congress subject headings

• 159 facets for features of documentary units

• 160 coextensive index headings using faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

• 161 examples of faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

• 162

• 163

• 164 categorization of multiple index headings using facets

• 165

• 166

• 167

• 168 testing of faceted syntax for Library of Congress subject headings

12.2.2.3. Ad Hoc String Syntax (NEPHIS).

• 169 definition of ad hoc string syntax

• 170 ad hoc string syntax compared to faceted syntax

• 171 ad hoc string syntax compared to natural language syntax

• 172 NEPHIS as example of ad hoc string syntax

• 173 notation in NEPHIS

• 174 examples of NEPHIS coding

• 175 examples of NEPHIS index headings

• 176 explanation of NEPHIS syntax algorithm

• 177 use of NEPHIS for book indexes

• 178

• 179

• 180

• 181

• 182

• 183 objectives of string syntax

• 184 impact of syntax on size of indexes

12.2.3. Relational Syntax.

• 185 views of Farradane (Jason) on relational indexing

• 186 relational indicators in relational syntax

• 187 notation for relational syntax

• 188 use of relational syntax

• 189 display of relational syntax

12.2.3.1. Syntagmatic Relationships.

• 190 definition of syntagmatic relationships

• 191 syntagmatic relationships and thematic roles

• 192 frame-based structures in indexing

12.2.4. Classification Syntax.

• 193 classified displays versus alphabetical displays

• 194 classified displays on the world-wide web; classification systems for searching

• 195 display of classification systems in hypertext

• 196 classification captions versus index headings

• 197 syntax in Dewey decimal classification

• 198

• 199

• 200 analytico-synthetic classification syntax

• 201 syntax in Library of Congress classification

• 202 syntax in faceted classifications

• 203 syntax in MLA international bibliography classification

• 204

• 205 arrangement of indexes versus classifications

• 206

• 207

• 208 classified arrangements of index headings within facets

• 209 hierarchical arrangement in classification

• 210

• 211 facet arrangement in MLA international bibliography classification

• 212 role of notation in classification systems

• 213

• 214

• 215 syntax and facet indicators in Universal decimal classification

• 216 examples of notation in Universal decimal classification

• notational symbols in Universal decimal classification compared to relational syntax : 217

12.2.4.1. Chain Syntax.

• 218 definition of chain syntax

• 219 alphabetical indexes for classified arrangements

• 220 creation of chain indexes from classified arrangements

• 221 examples of chain indexes

• 222

• 223

• 224

12.2.5. Natural Language Syntax.

• 225 natural language text as source for index headings

• 226 document titles as basis for index headings

• 227 effectiveness of natural language syntax

• 228 natural language syntax in digital libraries

• 229 effectiveness of natural language syntax

• 230 criteria for evaluation of natural language syntax

• 231 adequacy of titles as indexable matter

• 232 adequacy of collocation in natural language syntax

• 233 natural language syntax in keyword indexes

12.2.5.1. KWIC Indexes.

• 234 definition and example of KWIC indexes

• 235 evaluation of KWIC index syntax

• 236 collocation in KWIC indexes

• 237

• 238 format of KWIC indexes

12.2.5.2. KWOC Indexes.

• 239 definition and example of KWOC indexes

• 240 word pairs and phrases in KWOC indexes

12.2.5.3. KWAC Indexes.

• 241 definition and example of KWAC indexes

• 242 word pairs and phrases in KWAC indexes

12.2.6. Permuted Syntax.

• 243 word pairs in natural language syntax

• 244

• 245 definition of permuted syntax

• 246 permuted syntax versus natural language syntax

• 247 multi-word phrases in permuted syntax

• 248 example of permuted syntax

• 249

• 250 nonsensical index headings in permuted indexes

12.2.7. Ad Hoc Syntax.

• 251 definition of ad hoc syntax

• 252 examples of ad hoc syntax

• 253 characteristics of ad hoc syntax

• 254 elements of ad hoc syntax

• 255 guidelines for ad hoc syntax: prepositions in ad hoc syntax

• 256

• 257 cross references in ad hoc syntax

• 258 placement of cross references in ad hoc syntax

• 259

• 260 explanatory cross references

• 261 scope notes in displayed indexes

12.2.7.1. Combining Ad Hoc Syntax with Systematic Syntax.

• 262 examples of ad hoc and systematic syntax in Psychological abstracts

• 263 combinations of systematic syntax and citations

• 264 examples of placement of cross references

Figure 12.3. Index entries from Psychological abstracts. (Reprinted by permission of the American Psychological Association, (c) 1996.)

Figure 12.4. Index entries from Readers’ guide to periodical literature. (Reprinted by permission of the H. W. Wilson Company, (c) 1995.)

12.2.8. Syntactic Cross References.

• 265 necessity for syntactic cross references

• 266 examples of syntactic cross references

• 267

• 268 definitions of syntactic cross references

12.3. Postcoordinate Syntax for Non-Displayed Indexes.

• 269 precoordinate syntax versus postcoordinate syntax

• 270 characteristics of non-displayed indexes

• 271 use of inverted files for non-displayed indexes

• 272 definition of inverted files

• 273 definition of postcoordinate syntax

• 274 postcoordinate syntax used with precoordinate syntax

• 275 links in postcoordinate syntax

• 276 vocabulary lists versus non-displayed indexes

• 277

• 278 absence of syntax in vocabulary lists

• 279 definition of non-displayed indexes

Figure 12.5. Comparison of key attributes of displayed and non-displayed documentary unit indexes versus simple vocabulary lists. The major components are based on the NISO Guidelines for indexes and related information retrieval devices (Anderson 1997a, p. 8).

• 280 major types of syntax for non-displayed indexes: exact match and best match syntax

12.3.1. Exact Match (Boolean) Syntax.

• 281 definition of exact match syntax

• 282 history of exact match syntax

• 283

• 284 syntactic operators in exact match syntax

• 285 examples of exact match syntax

• 286 impact of exact match syntax

• 287 absence of ranking in exact match syntax

• 288 methods for arrangement of retrieved documentary units

• 289 narrowing of searches with exact match syntax

• 290

• 291 disadvantages of exact match syntax

• 292 meaning of syntactic operators in exact match syntax

• 293

• 294

• 295

• 296 alternative options for syntax for non-displayed indexes

12.3.2. Best Match (Weighted Term) Syntax.

• 297 definition of best match syntax; vector space and probabilistic models

• 298 language model for best match syntax

• 299

• 300 ranking in best match syntax

• 301 examples of best match syntax

• 302

• 303

• 304

• 305

• 306

• 307

• 308

• 309

• 310

• 311

• 312 automatic methods for term weighting

12.4. Our Examples.

12.4.1. A Book Index.

• 313 ad hoc string syntax for book indexes

• 314 documentary units and locators for book indexes

• 315 pages versus paragraphs as documentary units

• 316 examples of index statements for ad hoc string syntax

• 317 examples of index headings based on ad hoc string syntax

• 318 examples of index headings based on ad hoc string syntax

• 319 display of book indexes in electronic media

• 320 syntax for full-text searching of books in electronic media

12.4.2. An Indexing and Abstracting Service.

• 321

• 322 comprehensive searches in indexing and abstracting services in electronic media

• 323 user-defined stop lists

• 324 user options for automatic stemming

• 325 use of truncation

• 326 use of proximity requirements

• 327 targeted searches

• 328 use of clustering

• 329 comprehensive searches based on automatic indexing in print media

• 330 examples of KWIC indexes in print media

• 331 selective searches in indexing and abstracting services

• 332 faceted syntax in indexing and abstracting services

• 333 indexing worksheet for faceted syntax in indexing and abstracting services

• 334 examples of faceted syntax in indexing and abstracting services

• 335 generation of faceted index headings for indexing and abstracting services

• 336 format for faceted index headings in indexing and abstracting services

• 337 display of faceted index headings in indexing and abstracting services

• 338 purpose of displayed indexes in indexing and abstracting services

12.4.3. A Full-Text Encyclopedia/Digital Library.

• 339

• 340 search options for electronic encyclopedias and digital libraries

• 341 hypertext links in electronic encyclopedias and digital libraries

• 342 user suggested cross-references


Posted

in

, ,

by

Tags:

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *